IntroductionThe development on the quality of education is what is needed by any developing countries such as Indonesia to establish a nation that can ensure its citizen’s welfare. Through education, the young will acquire knowledge, skill, life purposes and habits that are benefits to their own life as well as to others and country. By having proper education, students can help out in reducing poverty, making people healthier, preventing criminal act, maintaining environmental sustainability, and many others. They can even someday eliminate problems that often occur within the country. Students who are educated have power to positively affect their life and surroundings. Based on this ideology, many theories of education have been proposed to meet those criteria by means of the acquisition of skills, knowledge and attitude needed. First, there is theory on classification of educational goal and objectives which is published in 1956 as a framework of Bloom’s Taxonomy. After many developments, this framework became taxonomy of three domains, the cognitive – knowledge based domain consisting of six levels, the affective – attitudinal based domain consisting of five levels, and the psychomotor – skills based domain consisting of six levels. In teaching and learning system, clear alignment of educational objectives with local, state, and national standards is a necessity. Thus, the structure of the Revised Taxonomy Table matrix provides a clear, concise visual representation (Krathwohl, 2002) of the alignment between standards and educational goals, objectives, products, and activities. Teachers must take all of these into consideration. There is also the theory of Multiple Intelligences which is introduced by Howard Gardner in 1983. According to Gardner’s theory, intelligence encompasses the ability to create and solve problems, create products, and provide services that are valued within a culture or society (Zhou and Brown, 2014). The key points of Gardner’s theory or known as The Eight Intelligences are Verbal/Linguistic intelligence, Logical/Mathematical intelligence, Visual/Spatial intelligence, Bodily/ Kinesthetic intelligence, Naturalistic intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Intrapersonal Intelligence and Existential intelligence. Gardner argues that everyone have all 8 intelligences in varying degrees and education can be improved by regarding students’ intelligence profiles and designing learning activities accordingly.The above theories and many others become basic foundation in the development of a curriculum. Tanner and tanner (1975) defined curriculum as “the planned and guided learning experiences and intended outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experience, under the auspices of the school, for the learner’s continuous and willful growth in person-social competence.” Meanwhile, Connelly and Clandinin (1988) argued that “Curriculum is often taken to mean a course of study. When we set our imaginations free from the narrow notion that a course of study is a series of textbooks or specific outline of topics to be covered and objectives to be attained, broader more meaningful notions emerge. A curriculum can become one’s life course of action. It can mean the paths we have followed and the paths we intend to follow. In this broad sense, curriculum can be viewed as a person’s life experience.” This statement generates a different point of view that is to provide an integrated curriculum that is more meaningful, relevant, interesting, and engaging.In Indonesia, this integrated curriculum takes its shape as K-13. The purpose of curriculum development 2013 according Kemendikbud in Permendikbud No. 69 Year 2013 About Basic Framework And Structure of High School Curriculum is to prepare Indonesian people to be able to live as individuals and citizens who are faithful, productive, creative, innovative, and affective and to contribute to the life of society, nation and the world. The 2013 curriculum is developed from the 2006 curriculum based on thinking about future challenges, people’s perceptions, development of knowledge and pedagogy and future competence. Nowadays, many educational institutions starts implementing K-13 and the government keeps socializing the use of this curriculum to schools in rural area by giving seminars and trainings to their teachers. However, it is possible for institution to combine K-13 with other curriculum in order to accomplish certain goal. For example, in Darul Ulum Islamic Boarding School, the institution uses the combination of K-13 and Darul Ulum Private Curriculum. This is because the institution has certain goal that is to facilitate students’ learning more on religious principle.This paper, thus, will notify certain area related to the use and implementation of curriculums in Darul Ulum Islamic Boarding School, Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It begins with the objectives of national education and then is narrowed down to institutional objectives, the objectives of the curricular and finally the instructional objectives of the school. Principles and General Objectives of National EducationAccording to Law No. 2/1989 on the National Education System, the basic principles of the national education system are: first, to establish a high-quality and self-reliant human being whose values are based on Pancasila. Pancasila is the ideology of Indonesia, outlined in the five basic principles: belief in one God, a just and civilized humanity, a unity of Indonesia, a democracy led by wisdom, discussion and deliberation among representatives of the people, and social justice for all. Second, the purpose is to support the Indonesian people, society and state in the broad context of social and national development. The aims of education are, on one hand, to keep and maintain Indonesia’s cultural background and, on the other, to generate the knowledge, skills and scientific progress that will keep the nation equal to other countries in the twenty-first century. In other words, national education should improve the life of the nation and develop the Indonesian people fully—in intellectual, moral, spiritual, physical and social context. This is in line with National Education Law 2003, which stated that a national education system should develop the nation’s capability and character by enhancing students’ in intellectual capacity and fostering certain human values; being healthy, knowledgeable, competent, creative and independent and acting as democratic and responsible citizens.In Indonesia, there are two institution authorities of education, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Religion. Ministry of Religion uses the same law of education with Ministry of Education but it differs in some aspects. Ministry of Religion interprets education law by adding some religious aspects:1. Improving access to equitable islamic education.2. Improving the quality of islamic education3. Increasing the relevance and competitiveness of islamic education4. Improving good governence of islamic education. Institutional AimsAs aforementioned in the rule of government about the aim of education in general, Islamic education also plays an important roles in gaining the aims. The fact that one of the national curriculum targets is to build up human being character to be a qualified men influences educational practitioners to teach students as the object of certain education. They want to teach students about the norms of live such as how to behave, respect other people, having responsibility, etc. In Islamic education, these aspects are important to be taught in school and are correspondingly with the education fundamentals of Islamic school reflected on Quran and Hadith. Therefore, teaching by following those fundamental aspects suggested that Islamic Education aim to shape students’ character to be ready to face the “wild” world and hereafter. In other words, Islamic students mostly have balance knowledge between intelligent and spiritual. As stated in Hadith Turmuzi (cited in www.asmaul-husna.com) about the way of getting success in life both in the world and in the hereafter by having both knowledge.Furthermore, the main goal of Islamic education as stated by al-Attas (1979, p.158) is “balanced growth of the total personality…through training Man’s spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings and bodily senses…such that faith is infused into the whole of his personality”. In addition, According to Board retrieved from education.stateuniversity.com on October, 24th 2017, “Education in Islam is twofold: acquiring intellectual knowledge (through the application of reason and logic) and developing spiritual knowledge (derived from divine revelation and spiritual experience (Lo and Haron, 2016)”. Therefore, it can be concluded that the aim of Islamic school is to create human being to be qualified men in whom they have both knowledge: intellectual knowledge and spiritual knowledge to implement in their life.In Indonesia, there are 50.000 Islamic school, 16015 of them are pesantren (Islamic boarding school) or dayah in Acehnese language and 37.000 of them are madrasah (Islamic day schools) (Tan, 2014, p. 50). One of the examples of the Islamic school in Aceh is Darul Ulum. This school is located in Jambo Tape, Banda Aceh and established on June 01, 1990. It is is one of Islamic Educational Institutions that embraces Madrasah and Santri System residing in dormitory with a period of 3-6 years of education. The process of teaching and learning activities in Darul ‘Ulum began in the Year 1990/1991 for the Madrasah Tsanawiyah level (junior high school) with the number of 14 students. Initially, Darul ‘Ulum only accommodated male students up to the 3rd year (Lesson Year 1992/1993). This condition is due to the unavailability and limited facilities in the school so it is not possible to accommodate female students. In accordance with the development and progress of the Aceh Region in general, then in the Year 1993/1994 they accept female students along with the opening of Madrasah Aliyah (senior high school) as continuation of existing Tsanawiyah level. The aims of this institution are the establishment of Islamic education as a way of developing Islamic knowledge and civilization. It also aims to the creation of qualified Islamic generation. The aims of this school are in relation with the Ministry of Religion (Kemenag) on the Ministerial religion No.39 Year 2015 that is:
“Terwujudnya Masyarakat Indonesia yang Taat Beragama, Rukun, Cerdas, dan Sejahtera Lahir Batin dalam rangka Mewujudkan Indonesia yang Berdaulat, Mandiri, dan Berkepribadian Berlandaskan Gotong Royong”
“(Translation: The realization of a devout Indonesian Community, harmony, wealthy inside and outside in order to realize Indonesia which are sovereign, independent and co-based mutual cooperation”).
In addition to the aims of Ministry of Islamic religion, Darul Ulum’s aims are also related to the Ministry of education “terwujudnya pendidikan bermutu dan berdaya saing berlandaskan Dinul Islam pada tahun 2017” (the realization of qualified education and competitively based on Dinul Islam (Islamic religion) in the 2017). All of these aims in both of ministries have been developed by Darul Ulum with the same purpose is to prepare students to face any kind of problems in the world with their strong character, especially moral crisis.
Besides having the same aims with the two Ministries of education, Darul Ulum’ objectives also have similar goals with Ministry of education and Ministry of Islamic religion. In point of fact, Darul Ulum has implemented three based curriculums from Ministry of religion, ministry of education and curriculum dayah. These combination also called curriculum +. Curriculum 13 (K13) is implemented on the day school while curriculum dayah are implemented on the afternoon. All of the subject of curriculum dayah are influenced by Quran and hadith. In short, the aims and the objectives goals from curriculum + are similar with general aims of Education in government rules.
The Objectives of Curricular
- The Objective of Curricular at School Institution of DarulUlum Islamic Boarding School
The curricular objectives can be achieved through each subject at school. The curricular goals can be defined as qualification that students should possessed once they have completed a particular field of study within an educational institution. Because the curricular objectives are essential to the achievement of the goals of educational institutions, thus, any curricular objectives should be able to support and is directed towards attaining institutional goals.
In Government Regulation 19/2005 on National Standards of Education, Article 6 states that the curriculum for general, vocational and special education in secondary and tertiary education levels consists of a group of religious subjects and moral value, group of subjects related to civic education and personality, group of subjects related to Science and technology, group of aesthetic subjects, and group of physical subjects such as sports, physical healthiness and self defense. Based on the Government Regulation, the National Education Standards Agency formulates the objectives of each subject group as follows:
- Group of religious subjects and moral value aims to help learners become human beings who have belief and piety to God Almighty and have noble character. These objectives are achieved through tasks and activities associated with religion, citizenship, personality, science and technology, aesthetics, physical, sports and health.
- Group of civic education and personality subjects aims to shape learners into human beings who have a sense of pride and love of the homeland. This goal is achieved through content and or religious activities, noble morals, citizenship, language, art and culture, and physical education.
- Group subjects Science and technology aims to develop learners’ logic, thinking ability and analysis
- In the SMP / MTs / SMP-LB / Non formal lower secondary school, the objective is achieved through the content and or activities of language, mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences, skills or vocational and or information and communication technology as well as local content relevant.
- In the SMA / MA / SMA-LB / Non formal secondary school, the objective is achieved through content and or activities of language, mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences, skills vocational, information and communication technology, and local content relevant.
- Group of aesthetic subjects aims to shape the character of learners into human beings who have a sense of art and cultural understanding. This objective is achieved through relevant content, and or language, arts and cultural activities, skills and relevant local content.
- Subject groups Physical aims to shape the character of learners to be physically and mentally healthy, and foster a sense of sportsmanship. This objective is achieved through the content and or activities of physical education, sports, health education, natural sciences, and relevant local content.
- The Objective of Curricular at Dayah Institution of DarulUlum Islamic Boarding School
- Subject groups Qiraatul Quran WaTajwid, FiqhTahfidzul Quran, and Ulumul Quran aims to shape the character of learners to be a good Islam generation that can read and understand Quran. This objective is achieved through the content and or activities of reading Quran.
- Subject of Imlak, Mahfudhat and Insyak aims to shape the learners into Islamic generation that have sense of art and skill capability. This objective is achieved through the content and activities of producing calligraphy
- Subject of Durus Al Lughah AL Arabiyah aims to shape the learners to be able to communicate well in Arabic and preparing the students to be a powerful Islamic generation that can faces the challenges of civilization progress in the future.
- Subject of Aqidah Islamiyah aims to foster the basics of Aqidah Islamiyah and Akhlakul Karimah for learners.
- Subject group of Hadith aims to increase students’ understanding and appreciation of the Qur’an and Hadith so they can actualize the Qur’an and Hadith in life.
Instructional Objective at Darul Ulum Islamic Boarding School
The curriculum is a learning system that is used to determine the success or failure in the learning system by measuring the number of achieved objectives. Teaching and learning activity is a situation that is bound and implemented to achieve the goal. The purpose of education and teaching is interdependent so the content of educational goals will vary depend on the degree to which the organization is set. Of course the content of the educational objectives at one organizational level is not contradictory to the other, but the aim at the lower level describes and specifies the goals at a higher level of organization.
Accordingly, the formulation of instructional objective specifies educational goals in a more detailed one. Instructional objective generally outline a particular field of study that students should achieve and the results will emerge in all student achievement. Thus instructional objective is the ability that must be obtained or achieved by students as the goal of the teaching and learning process. Robert F. Magner (1962) defines instructional objective as the goal of behavior to be achieved or that can be done by students according to competence. Eduard L. Dejnozka and David E. Kavel (1981) also mentions instructional objectives as a specific statement expressed in the form of behaviors, manifested in written form, and describe expected learning outcomes. Then Fred Percival and Henry Ellington (1984) define instructional objective as a statement that clearly indicates the appearance or skills expected as a result of the learning process.
Based on the opinion of these experts, we can conclude that instructional objectives are goals that describe the knowledge, abilities, skills, and attitudes that must be possessed by learners as a result of teaching expressed in the form of behavior that can be observed and measured. The instructional objective is the educational goal to be achieved at the level of instruction. The usefulness of instructional objectives can help teachers and lecturers as a reference, guidelines for teaching learning materials, choice of tools, appropriate teaching methods, also can help teachers in designing evaluation according to the goals.
The instructional objectives are usually divided into two parts: general instructional objectives (TIU) and specific instructional objectives (TIK). General instructional objectives (TIU) outline the results of a field study that students should achieve. Instructional objectives will also act as studens’ intended result which will come into sight after the teaching-learning process is completed (Djiwandono, 2005). The Specific Instructional Objective (TIK) is a concrete and specific interpretation and implementation to the practice of the instructional objectives of a topic in particular subject matter.
Typically a curriculum has an instructional purpose, as well as a curriculum plus in Darul ‘Ulum. The instructional objectives in the curriculum plus Darul ‘Ulum among others are expected to be able to generate quality output reflected in the ambitious, progressive and not “orthodox” attitude, so students can adapt in every form of civilization change and are well received by the community . Most of the subjects contained in the Dayah curriculum are religious lessons in which the lesson is taught using Arabic classical Islamic books, which have unique teaching techniques commonly known as rote-raising methods. Each program is equipped with a curriculum and syllabus compiled based on an integrated set of criteria. Based on the subjects contained in the curriculum of Darul ‘Ulum, we can see that the purpose of the instructional curriculum is to meet the needs of religious knowledge, in addition to general education.
In conclusion, by implementing combination of those curriculums, it will broaden the learning aspects of the students. The outcome is that the students becoming independent since they have to be responsible to their own things and needs. Students build discipline attitude through obeying school’s rules and they have more time to do a variety of activities. Students also build self-confidence and develop good habits. They also trained to overcome problems that might rise within small community such as workload, familiarize themselves in new environment, and interaction among students or teachers.
Rahmi Akmal Hussin, Ziaul Fitri, Ulya Zuhairati, Nanda Safitri & Izzatul Rizki
Postgraduate English Study Program, Syiah Kuala University
Banda Aceh, Indonesia
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