CURRICULUM AND SYLLABUS DESIGN

The more educators understand the concept of education system, the more knowlegeable the learners will be. The National Education based on Pancasila plays a good initial in the purpose of national education that includes in whole unit, type and educational activities, both on formal education, informal and non-formal in the context of national development. Guerbadot, S & Duché, B cited in Act of the Republic of Indonesia on National Education System, the purpose of Indonesian national education in Chapter II Article 3 of RI Law No. 20 Year 2003 is to:

“The national education function to develop the capability, character, and civilization of the nation for enhancing its intellectual capacity, and is aimed at developing learners’ politicals so that they become persons imbued with human values who are faithful and pious to one and only God; who possess morals and nobel character; who are healthy, knowledgeable, competent, creative, independent; and as citizens, are democratic and responsible (2003, pp. 8)”.

Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Terpadu (MIT) Al Ikhlas is located in Villa Buana Gardenia, Ajun, Aceh Besar. It is about 20 kilometers from the central city of Banda Aceh. MIT is as the basic education unit under the guidance of the Ministry of Religious Affairs that should prepare KTSP Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Terpadu referring to the National Education Standards that include content standards, graduate competency standards and guidelines for the preparation of KTSP from the National Education Standards Board. The preparation of KTSP Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Integrated Daarut Tahfizh Al-Ikhlas (MIT-DTI) is intended to ensure the achievement of national education objectives. There are the vision and the mission of this school. The vision of this school is to realize of the successor generation of Islam who memorized, understand and practice the Qur’an and As-Sunnah and Intellect and Knowledge, and the mission is to inculcate the basic values of Islam with the Qur’an and sunnah so that the form of a righteous child, to Integrate the Qur’an and Sunnah values with the learning curriculum according to the growth stage of the child, to establish a superior personality in order to preserve the salafus salihus culture that has made themselves, their families and children’s children as halimul Quran, to familiarize children memorize and interact with Al-Quran from an early age in order to form noble behavior and  and have a high sense of responsibility to religion and nation, to develop an integrated and sustainable curriculum between national education curriculum and superior program (Tahfizh Alquran), to develop children’s ability to communicate using foreign languages (Arabic and English), to organize self-development so that learners can grow in accordance with the interests and talents, to establish cooperation between madrasah, parents, community, government, and other stakeholders and to Inculcate the responsibility of teachers / students in creating a safe, peaceful, and clean madrasah environment in an Islamic atmosphere (Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Terpadu (MIT) Al Ikhlas, 2016).

In this school, English is categorized as one of the local content subjects. Language is one of the modalities to facilitate the communication because English is an international language. English lesson has been abolished at the elementary level, so Mit Daarut Tahfidz Al-Ikhlas’ school incorporates English lessons into Local Content lessons. The purpose of choosing English as a foreign language that must be studied are: the students can at least master / know the words (vocabulary) associated with daily activities, then they can communicate with the English, and understand the structure of language as well as using of tenses for higher classes. English is also expected to be more capital for children than any other general lessons in school.

For the last couple years, the curriculum in Indonesia has been changing and developing overtime. As stated  by Hartoyo (2011) in his handout about Curriculum and Material Development in English Language Teaching, Indonesia has already implemented nine curricula known as  the 1950 curriculum, 1958, 1962, 1968, 1975, 1984, 1994, 2004 and the current one being the 2006 curriculum. The 2006 curriculum is also known as the “Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan or School-Based Curriculum (SBC)”. The KTSP is designed in order that every school can develop the teaching and learning process according to the student’s character and the situation of school. As a result, the teacher can develop his methods and techniques in the is to teaching and learning process and increase the students’ competencies too. The successful of the implementation of KTSP may rely on some factors. These factors include a complete readiness of the teacher’s language proficiency, the teacher’s language teaching, and the teacher’s ability to media or tools in the teaching and learning process. If those factors are fulfilled, the main goal of the implementation of KTSP which is to develop students’ competencies will be achieved.

According to Naser (2010), the benefits of KTSP for institution is to encourage the realization of school autonomy in the implementation of education. KTSP provides broad autonomy to schools and educational units, along with a set of responsibilities to develop curricula according to local conditions and needs. KTSP gives wider opportunities to schools plus to develop curriculum that suits the needs.

For teachers, KTSP is benefial to encourage teachers, principals and school management to further enhance their creativity in the delivery of educational programs. Then he added based on the guidance of the Basic and Secondary Education Unit Curriculum level created by BSNP schools are provided with the flexibility to design, develop and implement the school curriculum according to the circumstances, conditions and potentials of local excellence that schools can generate (Naser, 2010). So that both teachers and principals are required to be more creative in the implementation of learning, so that the quality of education can be better. Teachers as facilitators in helping learners build knowledge. In the previous curriculum the teacher’s role is as an instructor or always give instruction to the students and is considered as a person who knows everything, but after the existence of KTSP the role is no longer valid, because in KTSP students are positioned as subject of learners, not as learners object, students are more dominant in the learning process, this is based on a view that students have the potential to develop and think independently, because one of the characteristics of effective learning is “to develop the idea that children will learn more meaningfully by working alone, self-discovery and self-constructing new knowledge and skills. ”

In addition, for students, KTSP is very recommended for each school to focus and develop certain subjects that are acceptable for students’ needs. This KTSP makes students easier because they are given the freedom to develop residual competence with their local culture. Hence, the curriculum used gives a good impact in teaching learning development for teachers and students. Students center as the focus on this curriculum and the teachers as the guides. The students are actively enough in teaching learning process. Moreover, teacher’s guide is also provided to help teachers with relevant learning-teaching activities; even an inexperienced teacher can apply it effectively. These activities are selected to stimulate students to actively participate in teaching-learning process and to actively communicate in English.

MIT Al Ikhlas used Grow with English as the textbook. It is a series of six books designed for elementary school student. It contains essential material to help student to master beginning-level of English. Each unit presents: simple and clear instructions, approximately ten new theme-related words, one or two language functions commonly used in the theme and sentence structures or patterns that support the language functions and review, a language game, and a song related to the game. The strengths of this book are: the book is very interesting to use because of colorful designed, the language is easy to understand, the organization of the book is simple and clear, it also can stimulate the students want to know what the topic is talked about. However, the weaknesses of the book are familiar here, such as the example of the exercises is really short-designed, and some of topics are difficult to make the students understand.

In teaching English, there are four skills that have to be included listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These skills should be integratedly taught by teachers to improve the students’ English competencies. Based on the analysis of the book used, it adequately covered about skills. It consists of the four language skills such as listening, reading, writing, and speaking. Although, in the book covered that “let’s listen and say” as the instruction before doing exercises, for instance in the second, the third, the fourth, and the sixth pages. However, the publisher does not support any cassettes or other electronic devices to help student in mastering language skill especially in listening. Hence, Grow with English book is really appropriate for teacher and student that apporiate to Indonesia curriculum. It has extraordinary designed and colorful. The content of the book is familiar with students’ activity in their life; it consists of school, house, and playground. This text book also covers the factual and conceptual in daily life, such as in the 63rd page of unit 4, the task discuss about,’’ let’s make some Gado-Gado”. The language is clear and simple. Thus, this book is carefully designed to help the students grow with and become proficient in English (Mukarto, 2007).

In teaching and learning process, the teacher mostly used several ways to attract students’ attention such as TPR or even mix methods. Dealing with TPR, it is a method in language teaching which is based on the coordination of speech and action. It allows students to react to language without thinking too much. Moreover, the students are required to carry out the instructions by physically performing the activities. TPR was developed in 1970 by Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University in California. He developed TPR as a result of his experiences observing young children learning their first language. He noticed that interection between parent and children often took the form of speech from the parents folllowed by a physical response from the child. Asher made three hypothesis based on his observation: 1. That language learned primarily by listening. 2. That language learning must engaged the right hemisphere of the brain. 3. That learning language should not involve any stress (Asher, 1969).

Based on the explanation above, we conclude that generally MIT Darul Tahfidz has the same purpose as Indonesian national education purposes which stated in Chapter II Article 3 of RI Law No. 20 Year 2003 is to: “The development of the potential of learners to become human beings who believe and be cautious to the God Almighty, have noble character, healthy, knowledgeable, capable creative and become a citizen of a democratic and responsible”. In order to achieve the purposes, it has vision and mission that related to the national education purposes.

In addition, the curriculum used in this school is KTSP that appropriates to the national curriculum. As we know that the position of English for elementary school students in K13 is not a main lesson. Therefore, this school chooses English lesson as a local content and used KTSP as a curriculum. In teaching and learning process, this school used an appropriate book for the learners, namely; Grow with English. This book has the content which is familiar with students’ activity in their life and also covers the factual and conceptual in daily life. Moreover, In teaching and learning process, the teacher mostly used several ways to attract students’ attention such as TPR or even mix methods. The students are required to carry out the instructions by physically performing the activities. Furthermore, one of  TPR goal is to reduce stress while learning. Hence, the absence of stress is an important condition for successful language learning and creating a positive mood in the learner. It is really appropriate for young learners like elementary school. Therefore, the lower the stress, the greater the learning, indeed.

Authors ; Fauza Aulia Rahmi; Intan Maulana; Rinawati; Sitti Wulandari & Rizka Mulya Phonna

References

Asher, J. (1969). The total physical response approach to second language learning. The Modern   Language Journal, 53(1), 3-17.

Guerbadot, S & Duché, B. (2003).  Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20,year  2003 on National Education System. The Ministry of National Education Republic of Indonesia: Jakarta. Retrieved in November 02, 2017, from http://www.flevin.com/id/lgso/trnslations/Laws/Law%20No.%2020%20of%202003%20on%20the%20National%20Education%20System%20(BKPM).pdf

Hartoyo. (2011). Curriculum and material development: syllabus/course outline. Jakarta:                 Program Pasca Sarjana, Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof.Dr. Hamka.

Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Terpadu (MIT) Al Ikhlas. (2016). document 1. Unpublished Document.        Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Terpadu (MIT) Al Ikhlas: Banda Aceh.

Mukarto. (2007). Grow with English book; an English course for elementary school students.        Jakarta: Erlangga.